About this course:
This module reviews the rising costs of cancer and its treatment, outlines the multifaceted aspects of cancer-related financial toxicities, and reviews nursing strategies to mitigate this undertreated and growing problem.
Financial Toxicity of Cancer Care
This module reviews the rising costs of cancer and its treatment, outlines the multifaceted aspects of cancer-related financial toxicities, and reviews nursing strategies to mitigate this undertreated and growing problem.
Upon completion of this module, learners should be able to:
- define financial toxicity of cancer treatment and explore the scope of the problem
- describe risk factors for financial toxicity, the direct and indirect costs of care, and the consequences of financial toxicity
- explore nursing strategies to mitigate the risk of financial toxicity
- identify patient advocacy resources and assistance programs offering financial assistance
Beyond the sweeping life impacts imposed by a cancer diagnosis, cancer has become an equally financially catastrophic burden for many patients. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1 in 3 Americans experience a financial burden as a result of medical care, and this burden is even higher for patients with cancer. A cancer diagnosis is often accompanied by higher out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses than other chronic illnesses; those with cancer are at an increased risk of experiencing financial difficulties than those without cancer. While significant advancements in cancer diagnostics and treatments have significantly improved patient outcomes and survival, therapy costs have skyrocketed. Financial toxicity describes the detrimental impact of the high cost of medical care, coupled with the loss of income, due to cancer and its treatment. Financial toxicity encompasses the experience of not being able to afford the costs of care and the ramifications of these costs. The financial burden endured by patients and their families is associated with heightened psychosocial distress, poorer patient outcomes, and impaired quality of life. While the relationship between financial toxicity and patient outcomes is only recently starting to be explored, both the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and the National Academy of Medicine (NAM) recognize cost-of-care conversations as a critical aspect of the clinician-patient relationship and an essential component of high-quality cancer care. Assessing and managing financial toxicity has become an indispensable part of the cancer care continuum (CDC, 2021, 2022; Chan & Nekhlyudov, 2022; Katz, 2018; Rosenberg, 2018).
An estimated 1.7 million people in the US are diagnosed with cancer annually. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the US, lagging behind only heart disease. Additionally, cancer is the leading cause of death for those under 65. Nearly 40% of men and women in the US will be diagnosed with cancer at some point during their lifetime. In 2022, cancer deaths were expected to total 609,360, and these deaths impose a significant economic burden on the US due to productivity losses from premature deaths. Despite these figures, the cancer survivorship population is growing; according to the American Cancer Society (ACS), the cancer death rate in the US declined by more than 27% between 1991 and 2018. There are an estimated 18.1 million cancer survivors in the US, which is expected to rise to more than 22.5 million by 2032 and 26 million by 2040. Over the next decade, the number of people alive 5 or more years after diagnosis is projected to increase by 33% to 15.1 million. Although the 5-year cancer survival rate has increased over the past several decades, Black people continue to have lower survival rates than White people for most cancer types. Black people are also more likely to be uninsured or underinsured, contributing to higher rates of financial toxicity (ACS, 2022; CDC, 2022; Howlader et al., 2019; Islami et al., 2019; Miller et al., 2019).
Scope of the Problem
Financial toxicity of cancer care is a widespread and growing problem in the US, affecting at least 73% of patients with cancer to some degree. According to the American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network (ACSCAN), cancer patients frequently face unpredictable and unmanageable costs, even with health insurance coverage. These costs can be related to high co-insurance, high deductibles, needing to seek out-of-network care, or requiring a treatment modality that is not covered by their insurance plan. Newly diagnosed cancer patients often experience the highest initial OOP costs in the first 2 to 3 months following their initial diagnosis until they meet their deductible and OOP maximums. However, the expenses reaccumulate the following year if the cancer is still being treated. The ACSCAN reviewed the costs for the three most common cancers, breast, lung, and colorectal, and determined that the average patient will pay between $6,000 and $10,000 per year in OOP expenses when premiums, deductibles, co-pays, and co-insurance are factored in (ACSCAN, 2017; Gordon et al., 2017).
Young adult cancer patients experience financial toxicity at higher rates than older patients, as OOP expenditures and economic hardship associated with cancer are higher among survivors aged 18 to 64 than older survivors (National Cancer Institute [NCI]). Nearly 15% of patients under 65 with cancer spend at least 20% of their income on OOP expenses, and 50% of Medicare beneficiaries with cancer pay at least 10% of their income for cancer treatment and related OOP costs. In addition, up to 25% of cancer survivors reported using up all or most of their savings for treatment, and up to 10% could not afford basic necessities (e.g., heat, housing, food). Cancer patients often delay or decline cancer treatment options due to the high costs (Chan & Nekhlyudov, 2022; NCI, 2019).
Data from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) 2011–2016 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) demonstrates that the average annual OOP spending per person is significantly higher among cancer survivors ($886–$1,113) than among persons without a cancer history ($606–$639). These higher OOP costs can be due to ongoing cancer therapy, surveillance measures, and care for any late or long-term effects of treatment. Cancer survivors are more likely to report a higher OOP medical expense burden (greater than 20% of annual family income) than persons without a cancer history (1.9% of annual family income). Survey data also revealed that 25.3% of cancer survivors reported material hardship (i.e., problems paying medical bills), and 34.3% reported psychological hardship (i.e., worry about medical bills). The percentage of survivors who reported experiencing financial hardship was highest for persons aged 40 to 49 years and higher among minority racial and ethnic groups than among White patients (Ekwueme et al., 2019). Ramsey et al. (2016) studied population-based data from the state of Washington and found that having a cancer diagnosis was associated with a 2.65-times greater likelihood of declaring personal bankruptcy. Moreover, according to a longitudinal study in which Gilligan and colleagues (2018) evaluated the impact of cancer on a patient's net worth and debt in the US, an estimated 62% of cancer patients are in debt due to treatment; 42% deplete their life savings within the first two years of cancer treatment, with an average loss of $92,098 (Gilligan et al., 2018).
Cost Factors of Cancer Care
Cancer is one of the costliest medical conditions to treat in the US, and cancer care costs are expected to reach almost $240 billion by 2030. Advancements in oncology treatments are accompanied by mounting costs to patients, the medical community, and society. The etiology of this high treatment price
...purchase below to continue the course
A report from IQVIA Institute for Human Data Science (2018) found that spending on cancer drugs in the US has doubled since 2012, reaching almost $50 billion in 2017, with two-thirds of this growth tied to drugs launched within the previous 5 years. List prices of new cancer medications have risen steadily over the past decade. For instance, the median annual cost of a new cancer drug launched in 2017 exceeded $150,000, compared to $79,000 for new cancer drugs in 2013. Global spending on cancer therapies and supportive cancer care has also grown, exceeding $164 billion in 2020. The value of these medicines has been recognized, and a greater share of drug budgets is allocated to these products. By 2025, this amount is projected to reach $269 billion (IQVIA, 2021).
Cancer is associated with substantial expenses resulting from both direct costs and indirect costs. Direct costs of cancer are the health care expenses directly for or related to cancer treatment, such as outpatient office co-pays; hospitalization; diagnostic, laboratory, and radiology imaging tests; medications; radiation treatments; and surgical procedures. In contrast, indirect costs are more difficult to quantify and track but are just as significant and problematic for patients and their families (Brauer & Morasso, 2019). Indirect costs associated with cancer care include the following:
- transportation to medical appointments and pharmacies (gas, tolls, parking, public transportation fares)
- employment loss and associated lost income
- cost for caregivers, home health aides, childcare
- wigs and other cosmetic items to address side effects
- travel and lodging near treatment facilities
- legal services
- fertility treatments or adoption fees
- nutritional expenses, including supplementation
- mental health services not covered by the third-party payer
- cost of medical supplies and durable medical equipment (DME), such as walkers, canes, and commodes (ACSCAN, 2017)
Additional variables affecting patient spending include the site of care (in-network oncology specialists and facilities versus out-of-network), treatment options, choices among drug therapies, and supportive care needs (Goss, 2018). According to ACSCAN (2017):
There are three primary approaches to treating cancer: surgery, radiation, and pharmacological therapy (including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, hormone therapy, and immunotherapy). Some patients receive all three treatment modalities, while others receive 1 or 2 types. Costs to the patient vary depending on the type and extent of the treatment (p. 6).
Cancer therapies have become increasingly effective and less toxic to patients. Therefore, patients can be on these drugs for longer periods when needed, leading to higher OOP costs and an increased financial strain (Nipp et al., 2018).
Insurers generally cover most traditional intravenous chemotherapy agents administered on an outpatient basis as part of the patient's medical benefits coverage. The patient is responsible for an office visit co-pay ($20 to $50) that covers the drug as well as the cost of administration and often has a limit on annual OOP spending. The role of oral chemotherapy and other oral cancer specialty drugs is progressively evolving with advancements in genomic profiling and precision medicine over the last several decades. However, the cost increases as newer, advanced oral cancer drugs are developed. One-third of all US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved cancer therapies are available in oral formulations and comprise up to 30% of cancer drugs in development. Oral medications offer several advantages over intravenous therapies and ought to be less expensive due to the lower cost of self-administered treatment, yet they are not. Most private insurers treat oral cancer medications as a prescription drug benefit, using a 'tiered' structure that increases the patient's cost-sharing responsibility as the price of the medication increases. Some of the newly approved oral cancer agents can cost up to $10,000 per month, and most patients are expected to pay 20% to 50% of these costs based on their prescription benefit plan. Therefore, a 1-year supply of these new drugs could range between $24,000 and $60,000 in additional OOP expenses, and these numbers do not consider the insurance plan premiums. Most patients have considerable OOP expenses without annual OOP limits, and many of these oral medications can exceed $100,000 annually without OOP limits. More than 10% of patients with cancer are unable to pick up their prescription medication from the pharmacy to start treatment due to the high cost. For example, imatinib (Gleevac) is a highly effective and widely-used oral treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia. Although imatinib (Gleevec) has been on the market for nearly 20 years, it still costs around $140,000 a year. A patient with a standard health insurance plan that imposes up to 25% co-insurance would incur somewhere between $2,500 to $4,500 in monthly OOP expenses. Oral agents are customarily prescribed for much longer durations than intravenous cancer therapies, escalating OOP costs to excessive levels when tallied across the lifespan of the prescribed treatment. Imatinib (Gleevac) is most effective when administered continuously for a minimum of 36 months, raising the price tag to $90,000 - $162,000 (Gorkin & Kantarjian, 2016; Hershman, 2016; Kircher et al., 2016; Lentz et al., 2019).
Risk Factors for Financial Toxicity
The financial toxicity of cancer is diverse and can range due to various factors. The interplay between cancer and financial distress is multifaceted and complex (NCI, 2019). Figure 1 demonstrates several key contributing factors to the financial toxicity of cancer care.
Severe Illness, Treatment Choice, and Health and Financial Outcomes
Patients with advanced-stage cancers, cancers requiring chemotherapy or radiation therapy, and those with underlying comorbidities are at higher risk of financial toxicity. More aggressive treatment and treatments of longer duration are more financially burdensome and contribute to enhanced toxicity, side effects, and disability. Therefore, patients with more aggressive cancers have been found to endure higher rates of work absenteeism, leading to lost employment, productivity, and wages due to cancer and its treatment. Patients transitioning to end-of-life (EOL) care also experience significant financial distress, often experiencing $10,000 in higher costs in the final 4 months of life. However, when patients at EOL are referred to hospice care, they often experience fewer hospitalizations, intensive care days, and invasive procedures resulting in approximately $90,000 less in financial expenditures than those not in hospice. Medicare and Medicaid cover 100% of hospice care costs, and most private insurance companies cover 100% once the OOP max has been reached (Guy et al., 2017; Lentz et al., 2019).
Cancer costs can fluctuate throughout the cancer trajectory if the disease progresses or spreads, complications develop, or recurs after treatment ends. In these instances, the patient may have already lost significant wages due to a limited work schedule or job loss. It is not uncommon for patients to have already depleted prior savings and funds and find themselves in a situation without the means to provide for their dependents and family. The association between younger age at cancer diagnosis (under 65) and a higher risk of various types of financial hardship is consistently cited throughout the literature, particularly when compared with those 65 years and older. Younger individuals may be particularly vulnerable to financial hardships due to a lack of savings/assets and competing financial obligations (i.e., student loan debt, children). Further, younger survivors lack the protection of Medicare coverage, placing some without insurance or with high-deductible health plans, heightening the risk for financial toxicity (ASC, 2022; CDC, 2021; NCI, 2019).
Adult survivors of childhood cancers are more vulnerable to financial hardship, attributed to the physical, emotional, and mental effects of cancer as a child and the inconsistent disruption to education and limited employment opportunities. Furthermore, childhood cancer survivors face a higher risk of secondary malignancies from cancer treatment and other long-term and late treatment effects (Miller et al., 2019).
Consequences of Financial Toxicity
Financial toxicity is a broad and diverse adverse effect of cancer treatment that impacts the patient and their family. It is associated with adverse outcomes and consequences, such as decreased health-related quality of life and well-being, non-adherence to therapy, and reduced quality of care. Financial toxicity often affects treatment decisions and adherence, placing patients at higher mortality risk. Ramsey and colleagues (2016) found that patients with cancer who declared bankruptcy had a 79% greater mortality risk than those who had not declared bankruptcy, highlighting the shocking correlation between financial toxicity and death. Patients on oral cancer treatments are routinely forced to decide between financial ruin or foregoing treatment. The high cost of these potentially life-saving oral medications leads to delays in treatment initiation, non-adherence to dosing, partially filled prescriptions, skipping treatments or medical appointments, and premature discontinuation of therapy, all of which have detrimental consequences on quality of life and impair survival. Cancer survivors reporting financial hardship are more likely to delay, forgo, and are unable to adhere to care. Patients enduring financial toxicity, particularly those who cannot afford their cancer treatments, have higher rates of psychological distress, including increased depression, anxiety, panic, fear of cancer recurrence, and post-traumatic stress disorder (Altice et al., 2017; Paolella et al., 2018).
Legislation and Oral Drug Parity Laws
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act contained provisions to improve a patient's access to health insurance and reduce costs through tax credits, primarily benefiting previously uninsured patients with low household incomes. However, despite higher insurance coverage rates, cancer survivors endure greater difficulties accessing and affording health care than adults without cancer. For patients who had insurance through their employers (which comprises the vast majority of patients in the US), these provisions had minimal impact in mitigating the growing cost of cancer care (Nipp et al., 2018).
In response to the cost burden associated with oral cancer medications, many states have passed laws requiring health insurers to provide coverage for oral drugs equivalent to the coverage provided for traditional intravenous chemotherapy agents under medical benefit plans. While oral chemotherapy access laws vary from state to state, 43 states and the District of Columbia have enacted oral parity laws to promote more equitable cost-sharing. The laws are state-driven and require any health plan that provides coverage for intravenous cancer therapy to provide similar cost coverage for oral cancer medications. The laws strive to promote equal access to and coverage for treatment and attempt to offset health insurance cost-sharing schemes as the primary barrier to accessing life-saving medications. However, the laws are not mandated and only apply to certain types of health plans that already offer chemotherapy coverage. They do not apply to federally mandated programs like Medicare or most employer-sponsored plans (Kircher et al., 2016; Paolella et al., 2018).
Further, parity laws do not lower costs when the intravenous and oral treatment options are expensive. Therefore, only a small subset of patients is likely to benefit from the laws as they currently stand, such as those on oral therapies where the comparable intravenous drug is inexpensive. Those on newer, more expensive oral agents may not reap this reward (Kircher et al., 2016). The Cancer Drug Parity Act of 2017 (HR 1409) was introduced to Congress in March 2017 and reintroduced in 2021 as the Cancer Drug Parity Act of 2021 (HR 4385), but there has been little action taken to move it through the legislative process. The proposed legislation specifies that patient-administered cancer drugs are not subject to prior authorization, step therapy, dollar or durational limit, co-payment, deductible, or co-insurance, which does not apply to provider-administered anti-cancer medications (Congress HR 4385, 2021). There remains a solid argument to improve oral drug access at the federal level and for Congress to expand parity law protections to those on private insurance. However, if private insurers are forced to cover newer, more expensive oral agents, they will likely respond by raising insurance premiums, and the mandate will be futile. Therefore, parity laws require strategic restructuring and planning to effectively correct this problem (Kircher et al., 2016).
Interventions to Mitigate Financial Toxicity
Evidence-based interventions are lacking to effectively alleviate the disproportionate financial hardship experienced by cancer patients and survivors. In recent years, there has been increased attention on this radically growing problem as the link between financial toxicity and impaired health-related quality of life and physical health has been acknowledged. While interprofessional involvement and clinical expertise are necessary, current literature proposes several strategies and ways for nurses to support and guide patients regarding cost-of-care concerns and ease the financial burden (Thomas et al., 2019). These strategies include assessment and screening measures for financial hardship at cancer diagnosis and throughout cancer care, integration of discussions about the potential for adverse economic consequences of treatments in shared treatment decision-making, and linking patients and survivors to available resources to ensure access to high-quality, evidence-based care (CDC, 2021). While it is not practical for every clinical nurse to perform financial toxicity assessments on each patient, nurses are advised to at least be alert to patient and family concerns about the cost of care. Facilitating these discussions and connecting patients with resources is the critical first step in combatting this problem (Becze, 2019).
As a means of identifying patients with cancer who are at risk for financial stress and intervening to reduce that risk, ASCO encourages providers and nurses to utilize the Comprehensive Score for Financial Toxicity (COST) tool to address and measure a patient's risk for financial stress. The COST questionnaire is a patient-reported outcome instrument that includes 11 statements about financial costs, resources, and concerns. For each question, patients are asked to circle 1 of 5 possible responses that help determine their level of concern. The American College of Physicians (ACP) has also devised several free online tools and resources to help clinicians and nurses with cost-of-care discussions. The ACP's Cost Distress Screening Tool can identify patients with potential financial distress. Its complement, Cost of Care Resources for Clinicians and Patients, offers practical solutions to the most common issues (Garbutt, 2019; Souza et al., 2017).
Referrals and support should be the standard of care across the cancer trajectory, and nurses are well-equipped to spearhead this undertaking. Oncology nurses commonly form ongoing, compassionate, rewarding, and emotionally-charged relationships with patients due to the nature of a cancer diagnosis and its treatment. Nurses are regularly cited as the most trusted caregiving professional granting them a unique opportunity to utilize their therapeutic relationships and clinical assessment skills to identify those at risk for financial hardship. Financial toxicity should be evaluated as a treatment-related symptom; nurses can assess its impact on pain, fatigue, sleep, and psychosocial effects such as anxiety and depression. Nurses are at the front lines to initiate cost-of-care discussions, facilitate timely access to assistance programs, and connect patients with social workers or financial counselors. Linking patients to local resources that offer volunteer-staffed transportation services for medical appointments can alleviate some burdens (Becze, 2019).
Several patient assistance prescription programs from pharmaceutical companies or other charities contribute to co-pays and cover the cost of oral specialty medications. These costs can be covered by grant funding sponsored by the pharmaceutical company directly or a third party. Unfortunately, most patients with government insurance (i.e., Medicare and Medicaid) are not eligible for these discount programs. Most charity programs require patients to meet income and asset guidelines; applicants must submit income and tax return documents before funding for the medication is awarded. These can be lengthy, time-consuming, and tiresome activities for ill cancer patients, and the nurse can be a critical resource for the patient and caregivers navigating through this process (Becze, 2019). Patients can also receive assistance with the cost of their medicines from public and private programs. Some programs allow uninsured or underinsured patients to buy drugs at discounted prices, whereas others help people who cannot afford any part of their medication costs (Becze, 2019; Souza et al., 2017). Nursing strategies can include
- introducing the topic and opening the discussion on cost-of-care and financial hardships
- performing a financial toxicity assessment using a formal tool such as the COST questionnaire or informally through dialogue and asking open-ended questions
- listening as patients describe the state of their current situation, concerns, fears, hardships, and needs
- compiling a list of accessible local, community, and national resources to assist patients with cancer-related financial concerns
- facilitating referrals, as indicated, to social workers or financial navigators, connecting patients to local and community resources, offering national organization resource lists, prescription assistance programs
- advocating for change by speaking to hospital administration and securing funds to help patients with parking and transportation costs; connecting with oncology-based organizations to spearhead fundraising; contacting local legislators and senators; lobbying for oral chemotherapy parity laws (ACS, 2022; NCI, 2019; Thomas et al., 2019)
There are various prescription drug programs and patient advocacy resources that the nurse should be aware of to provide to the patient:
- Prescription programs
- Medicare Pharmaceutical Assistance Program: medicare.gov/pharmaceutical-assistance-program
- NeedyMeds: needymeds.org
- Medicine Assistance Tool: medicineassistancetool.org (ACS, 2022; Becze, 2019)
- Charity and patient advocacy resources
- Patient Advocate Foundation: patientadvocate.org
- Cancer Financial Assistance Coalition: cancerfac.org
- The Assistance Fund: tafcares.org
- Healthwell Foundation: healthwellfoundation.org
- Patient Access Network Foundation: panfoundation.org
- Good Days: mygooddays.org
- Patient Services Incorporated: patientservicesinc.org (ACS, 2022; Becze, 2019)
Although healthcare providers can help to identify patients experiencing or at risk for financial toxicity of cancer care, healthcare institutions must take more aggressive approaches to assist patients in alleviating this financial burden. In addition to incorporating consistent screening into the current workflow, healthcare institutions should invest in supportive oncology services. A financial navigator is a supportive service that recent evidence has found beneficial. A financial navigator is a person or team who works with patients and their families to help them understand OOP expenses and what their health insurance plans may or may not cover. In addition, these navigators have the knowledge and skills to assist patients in setting up payment plans, finding cost-saving treatment methods, and applying for additional insurance coverage or grants that may cover the costs of prescription drugs or other cancer treatments. Unfortunately, these tasks are often overwhelming for patients and require a significant time investment. Providers, nurses, and social workers can assist with these processes, but their primary focus is direct patient care, leaving the patient and family to navigate these challenging tasks alone. When healthcare institutions invest in a financial navigator, more patients will receive the assistance they need to address or prevent financial toxicity. A nurse or social worker does not usually fill a financial navigator position. However, it should be filled by someone with experience in financial coordination, human resources, community resources, and applying for public assistance (Lentz et al., 2019).
One of the most significant barriers to cancer treatment is not the existence of the optimal treatment, but patient access to it, and access is often thwarted by cost. Oncologists should decide the most effective treatment based on medical expertise, research evidence, and patient needs, not insurance companies and payment plans. As the number of cancer survivors is expected to reach 26.1 million by 2040, the need for cost-effective solutions to deter the economic burden of cancer treatment becomes increasingly dire. Getting control of and managing financial toxicity will improve the health outcomes of patients (ACS, 2022; Souza et al., 2017).
Altice, C. K., Banegas, M. P., Tucker-Seeley, R. D., & Yabroff, K. R. (2017). Financial hardships experienced by cancer survivors: A systematic review. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 109(2). https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djw205
American Cancer Society. (2022). Cancer treatment & survivorship facts & figures. https://www.cancer.org/research/cancer-facts-statistics/survivor-facts-figures.html
American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network. (2017). The costs of cancer. https://www.fightcancer.org/policy-resources/costs-cancer
Becze, E. (2019). How oncology nurses can support patients during financial toxicity. ONS Voice. https://voice.ons.org/news-and-views/how-oncology-nurses-can-support-patients-during-financial-toxicity
Brauer, E. R., & Morasso, E. G. (2019). Financial vulnerability: A case study involving a patient with head and neck cancer. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 23(5), 31-35. https://doi.org/10.1188/19.CJON.S2.31-35
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). Annual report to the nation part 2: Patient economic burden of cancer care more than $21 billion in the United States in 2019. https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2021/p1026-cancer-annual-report.html
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022). Health and economic costs of chronic disease. https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/about/costs/index.htm
Chan, R., & Nekhlyudov, L. (2022). Overview of cancer survivorship care for primary care and oncology providers. UpToDate. Retrieved August 1, 2022, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-cancer-survivorship-care-for-primary-care-and-oncology-providers
Ekwueme, D. U., Zhao, J., Rim, S. H., de Moor, J. S., Zheng, Z., Khushalani, J. S., Han, X., Kent, E. E., & Yabrof, R. (2019). Annual out-of-pocket expenditures and financial hardship among cancer survivors aged 18–64 years — United States, 2011–2016. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 68(22), 494–499. http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6822a2
Garbutt, T. (2019). The cost of cancer and how healthcare providers can help mitigate financial toxicity. Oncology Nurse Advisor. https://www.oncologynurseadvisor.com/home/departments/navigation/how-to-facilitate-essential-cost-of-care-conversations/
Gilligan, A. M., Alberts, D. S., Roe, D. J., & Skrepnek, G. H. (2018). Death or debt? National estimates of financial toxicity in persons with newly-diagnosed cancer. American Journal of Medicine, 131(10), 1187-1199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2018.05.020
Gordon, L. G., Merollini, K. M. D., Lowe, A., & Chan, R. J. (2017). A systematic review of financial toxicity among cancer survivors: We can’t pay the co-pay. Patient, 10, 295-309. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40271-016-0204-x
Gorkin L., & Kantarjian, H. (2016). Targeted therapy: Generic imatinib—impact on frontline and salvage therapy for CML. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, 13(5), 270-272. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrclinonc.2016.59
Goss, E., (2018). The state of cancer care 2018.
Guy, G. P., Yabross, K. R., Ekwueme, D. U., Rim, S. H., Li, R., & Richardson, L. C. (2017). Economic burden of chronic conditions among survivors of cancer in the United States. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 35(18), 2053-2061. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.71.9716
Hershman, D. L. (2016). Sticking to it: Improving outcomes by increasing adherence. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 34(21), 2440-2442. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.67.7336
Higgins, B. (2017). Congress H.R.4385 - Cancer Drug Parity Act of 2021. 117th Congress (2021-2022). https://www.congress.gov/bill/117th-congress/house-bill/4385
Howlader, N., Noone, A. M., Krapcho, M., Miller, D., Brest, A., Yu, M., Ruhl J., Tatalovich, Z., Mariotto, A., Lewis, D., Chen, H., Feuer, E., & Cronin, K. A. (2019). SEER cancer statistics review (CSR), 1975-2016. https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2016/sections.html
IQVIA Institute for Human Data Science. (2021). Global oncology trends 2021. https://www.iqvia.com/insights/the-iqvia-institute/reports/global-oncology-trends-2021
Islami, F., Miller, K. D., Siegel, R. L., Zheng, Z., Zhao, J., Han, X., Ma, J., Jemal, A., & Yabroff, K. R. (2019). National and state estimates of lost earnings from cancer deaths in the United States. JAMA Oncology, 5(9): e191460. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.1460
Katz, A. (2018). Let’s talk about financial toxicities. Oncology Nursing Forum, 45(3), 281-282. https://doi.org/10.1188/18.ONF.281-282
Kircher, S. M., Meeker, C. R., Nimeiri, H., Geynisman, D. M., Zafar, S. Y., Shankaran, V., de Souza, J., & Wong, Y. (2016). The parity paradigm: Can legislation help reduce the cost burden of oral anticancer medications. Value in Health, 19(1), 88-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2015.10.005
Lentz, R., Benson, A. B. III, & Kircher, S. (2019). Financial toxicity in cancer care: Prevalence, causes, consequences, and reduction strategies. Journal of Surgical Oncology, 120(1), 85-92. https://doi.org/10.1002/jso.25374
Miller, K. D., Nogueria, L., Mariotto, A. B., Rowland, J. H., Yarbroff, R., Alfano, C. M., Jemal, A., Kramer, J. L., & Siegel, R. L. (2019). Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics, 2019. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 69(5), 363-385. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21565
National Cancer Institute. (2019). Financial toxicity and cancer treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - health professional information [NCI]. https://healthy.kaiserpermanente.org/health-wellness/health-encyclopedia/he.financial-toxicity-and-cancer-treatment-pdq®-treatment-health-professional-information-nci.ncicdr0000781334#s1.2
Nipp, R. D., Shui, A. M., Perez, G. K., Kirchhoff, A. C., Peppercorn, J. M., Moy, B., Kuhlthau, K., & Park, E. R. (2018). Patterns in health care access and affordability among cancer survivors during implementation of the Affordable Care Act. JAMA Oncology, 4(6), 791-797. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.0097
Paolella, G. A., Boyd, A. D., Wirth, S. M., Cuellar, S., Venepalli, N. K., & Crawford, S. (2018). Adherence to oral anticancer medications: Evolving interprofessional roles and pharmacist workforce considerations. Pharmacy, 6(23), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy6010023
Ramsey, S. (2018). Conceptual framework relating severe illness, treatment choice, and health and financial outcomes [Image]. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Financial_toxicity_flow-chart.jpg
Ramsey, S. D., Bansal, A., Fedorenko, C. R., Blough, D. K., Overstreet, K. A., Shankaran, V., & Newcomb, P. (2016). Financial insolvency as a risk factor for early mortality among patients with cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 34(9), 980-986. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2015.64.6620
Rosenberg, J. (2018). Discussing the cost burden of cancer with patients. AJMC Managed Markets Network. https://www.ajmc.com/conferences/asco-2018/discussing-the-cost-burden-of-cancer-with-patients
Souza, J. A., Wroblewski, K., Proussaloglou, E., Nicholson, L., Hantel, A., & Wang, Y. (2017). Validation of a financial toxicity (FT) grading system. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 35(15), 6615. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2017.35.15_suppl.6615
Thomas, T., Hughes, T., Mady, L. J., & Belcher, S. M. (2019). Financial toxicity: A review of the literature and nursing opportunities. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 23(5), 5-13. https://doi.org/10.1188/19.CJON.S2.5-13